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Stefano Musacchi

PhD, Horticulture (Pomology), University of Bologna MSc Horticulture, University of Bologna
Stefano Musacchi
Professor and Endowed Chair of Tree Fruit Physiology and Management 509-293-8787 WSU TFREC 1100 N Western Ave.

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Stefano Musacchi is a Professor and Endowed Chair of Tree Fruit Physiology and Management at Washington State University (WSU). Dr. Musacchi’s academic training is in Pomology (MS and PhD). He taught for 13 years at the University of Bologna, Italy, and 6 years at the University of Bolzano. He joined Washington State University in 2013 and has established a broad research program covering orchard management and fruit quality. In more detail, his research program aims to develop advanced orchard management practices to improve apple, pear, and cherry yield, fruit quality, and profitability. His areas of specialization are orchard planting systems, rootstocks, pruning and training, pollination, precision crop load management, netting, and light interception.

Several agencies have supported his research, and he has had 26 projects funded as PI or co-PI in the last 10 years. A special mention is for the “Identifying and Managing Sources of Quarantine-Significant Post Harvest Diseases in Pacific Northwest Apple and Pear Orchards” project funded by the USDA (United State Department of Agriculture) Foreign Agricultural Service’s Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC) and the USDA – Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) – “Precision Crop Load Management for Apples.” During his activity in the USA, Dr. Musacchi’s program attracted over $5.8M in competitive grants. The total budget of the funded projects he participated in is over 17M. In Italy, he was the National Coordinator of the “Management and Crop Innovations for High-Quality Pear Production” AGER project (€3.5M). He supervises the “Pear Breeding Rootstocks and Cultivars” project based in Bologna. In 2014, Dr. Musacchi patented 4 new pear cultivars. He has published 190 publications (97 in English) and given over 200 presentations at scientific conferences in 26 countries. Dr. Musacchi also has 22 videos online with over 250K views. In 2017, he received the Outstanding Extension Materials Award from the ASHS. He is the Chair of two ISHS Working groups: European and Asian Pears (2018-2027) and Rootstock Breeding and Evaluation (2021-2025). He was the  Chair of the Pomology working group of the American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) (2017-2018). He serves on the editorial board of some important Journals: Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395), and eJHS (European Journal of Horticultural Science) (ISSN: 1611-4426). He is the Editor of the Acta Hort Book number 1346 (Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems).

Areas of interest

  • Orchard management
  • Training systems
  • Light interception
  • Rootstocks and cultivar evaluation
  • Productive habit in apple cultivar
  • Precision crop load management
  • Fruit quality
  • Flower biology
  • Graft-incompatibility


2018-Present (July 1, 2018). Professor, Washington State University, Department of Horticulture (100% research). Endowed Chair of Tree Fruit Physiology and Management.
2013-2018 (August 1, 2013). Associate Professor, Washington State University, Department of Horticulture (100% research). Endowed Chair of Tree Fruit Physiology and Management.
2002-2007 Instructor at Free University of Bozen-Bolzano. Frutticoltura (Fruit Crops) (60 hours per year of lessons)
2000-2013 (January 1, 2000 – June 30, 2013). Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Scienze Agrarie (DipSA), University of Bologna.
1998-1999 (September 15, 1998 – December 1999). Post-doc fellowship – High-density planting in pear: management, varieties, and economic profitability. University of Bologna.
1997-1998 (May 1997 – September 1998). Post-doc fellowship – Molecular and chemical markers of graft-incompatibility. University of Bologna.
1995-1996 (November 1995 – September 1996). Graduate fellowship about Molecular and Chemical markers of graft-incompatibility. University of Bologna.
1992-1995 (November 1992 – October 1995). PhD student in Pomology (VI cycle University of Bologna), Advisor: Prof. Silviero Sansavini. Thesis title:  Studies on the physiological and biochemical aspects of graft-incompatibility. Defense July 8, 1996.
1992        (February 1992 – October 1992). Graduate fellowship: Recipient of C.N.R. (National Research Council) fellowship Department of Colture Arboree of the University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Title of the project: Quality mechanisms in fruit.
1983-1990 (September 1983- June 6, 1990). Masters in Agricultural Sciences Department of Colture Arboree Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at University of Bologna in 1990 with 108 out of 110. Advisor: Prof. Guglielmo Costa. (Thesis title:  Application of growth regulators in the nursery).


1996 Doctor of Philosophy in Pomology, Department of Colture Arboree, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at University of Bologna defended in 1996. Advisor: Prof. Silviero Sansavini. Thesis title:  Studies on physiological and biochemical aspects of graft-incompatibility.
1990 Masters in Agricultural Sciences, Department of Colture Arboree, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at University of Bologna defended in 1990 with 108 out of 110). Advisor: Prof. Guglielmo Costa. Thesis title:  Application of growth regulators in the nursery.

Publications and Creative Scholarship

Lettering  rubric:  (a)  Developed  initial  idea; (b)  Obtained  or  provided  funding  or  other  resources;  (c)  Collected  data;  (d) Analyzed  data;  (e)  Wrote/Created  product; (f) Edited product. (*)  Corresponding author; (+) directly supervised student, post-doc, technician.

Peer-reviewed journal

57 Sheick R. +, Serra S.+, Musacchi S., Rudell D., 2023. Metabolic fingerprint of ‘WA 38’ green spot symptoms reveals increased production of epicuticular metabolites by parenchyma. Scientia Horticulturae 321, 112257 (abcdf).
56 Musacchi S.*, Sheick R.+, Mia MJ +, Serra S.+ 2023. Studies on physiological and productive effects of multi-leader training systems and Prohexadione-Ca applications on apple cultivar’WA 38′. Scientia Horticulturae 312, 111850 (abcdef).
55 Sheick R.+, Serra S.+, Rudell D. and Musacchi S.*, 2022. Investigations of Multiple Approaches to Reduce Green Spot Incidence in ‘WA 38’ Apple. Agronomy, 12(11), 2822 (abcdef).
54 Hillmann L., Gonzalez Nieto L., Kon T., Musacchi S., Robinson T., Serra S.+, and Einhorn T., 2022. A Modified Apple Fruit Set Prediction Model to Guide Repeat Thinner Applications. FRUIT QUARTERLY. Vol. 30(2): 4-6. SUMMER 2022
53 Serra S.+,  Roeder S.+, Sheick R+., and Musacchi S.*, 2022. Pistil Biology of ‘WA 38’ Apple and Effect of Pollen Source on Pollen Tube Growth and Fruit Set. Agronomy 2022, 12(1), 123; (abcdef).
52 Lezzer P., Tustin S., Corelli-Grappadelli L., Serra S. +, Anthony B. +, Dorigoni A. and  Musacchi S.*, 2022. Influences of Propagation Method, Rootstock, Number of Axes, and Cultivation Site on ‘Fuji’ Scions Grown as Single or Multi-Leader Trees in the Nursery. Agronomy 2022, 12(1), 224 (abcdef).
51 Cline J. A., Autio W., Clements J., Cowgill W., Crassweller R., Einhorn T., Fallahi E.,  Francescatto P., Hoover E., Lang G., Lordan J., Moran R., Muehlbauer M., Musacchi S., Stasiak M., Parra Quezada R., Robinson T., Serra S. +, Sherif S., Wiepz R., and Zandstra J. 2021. Early Performance of ‘Honeycrisp’ Apple Trees on Several Size-Controlling Rootstocks in the 2014 NC-140 Rootstock Trial. Journal of the American Pomological Society 75: (4).
50 Anthony B.+, Musacchi S.*, 2021. Dwarfing mechanisms and rootstock-scion relationships in apple. Italus Hortus Vol. 28 (2021), Pages 22-36. DOI: 10.26353/j.itahort/2021.2.2236 (abcdef).
49 Musacchi S.*, Iglesias I. and Neri D., 2021. Training Systems and Sustainable Orchard Management for European Pear (Pyrus communis L.) in the Mediterranean Area: A Review. Agronomy 11(9):1765 DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11091765. LicenseCC BY 4.0 (abcdef).
48 Roeder S +, Serra S.+, and Musacchi S., 2021. Pollination Period and Parentage Effect on Pollen Tube Growth in Apple. Plants 10(8):1618. DOI: 10.3390/plants10081618 (abcdef).
47 Roeder S. +, Serra S. +, and Musacchi S.*, 2021. Novel Metrics to Characterize In Vitro Pollen Tube Growth Performance of Apple Cultivars. Plants 10(7):1460. DOI: 10.3390/plants10071460 (abcdef).
46 Honaas L., Hargarten H., Hadish J., Ficklin S. P., Serra S. +, Musacchi S., Wafula E., Mattheis J., dePamphilis C.W., Rudell D., 2021. Transcriptomics of Differential Ripening in ‘d’Anjou’ Pear (Pyrus communis L.). Frontiers in Plant Science DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2021.609684 (abcdf).
45 Zhang, C., Serra, S. +, Quirós-Vargas, J., Sangjan, W., Musacchi, S. and Sankaran, S., 2021. Non-invasive sensing techniques to phenotype multiple apple tree architectures. Information Processing in Agriculture (abcdf).
44 Serra S.+, Anthony B.+, Masia A., Boscolo Sesillo F. and Musacchi S.*, 2021. Determination of Post-Harvest Biochemical Composition, Enzymatic Activities, and Oxidative Browning in 14 Apple Cultivars. Foods 2021, 10(1), 186; (abcdef).
43 Serra, S.+; Borghi, S.; Mupambi, G.; Camargo-Alvarez, H.; Layne, D.; Schmidt, T.; Kalcsits, L.; Musacchi, S., 2020. Photoselective Protective Netting Improves “Honeycrisp” Fruit Quality. Plants, 2020, 9, 1708. doi: 10.3390/plants9121708. (abcdef).
42 Serra S.+, Anthony B.+, Masia A., Giovannini D. and Musacchi S.*, 2020. Determination of biochemical composition in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) accessions characterized by different flesh color and textural typologies. Foods 2020, 9(10), 1452; (registering DOI) – October 13 2020 (abcdef).
41 Sheick R.+, Serra S.+, Tillman J., Luby J., Evans K., Musacchi S.*, 2020. Characterization of a novel S-RNase allele and genotyping of new apple Cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae Vol. 273, November 17 2020, 109630 (abcdef).
40 Goke A. +, Serra S.+, and Musacchi S., 2020. Manipulation of Fruit Dry Matter via Seasonal Pruning and Its Relationship to d’Anjou Pear Yield and Fruit Quality. Agronomy 10 (6), 897 (abcdf).
39 Anthony B. +, Serra S. +, and Musacchi S.*, 2020. Optimization of Light Interception, Leaf Area and Yield in “WA38”: Comparisons among Training Systems, Rootstocks, and Pruning Techniques. Agronomy 10 (5): 689 (abcdef).
38 Mesa K.+, Serra S.+, Masia A., Gagliardi F.+, Bucci D.+, and Musacchi S.*, 2019. Preliminary study on effect of early defoliation on dry matter accumulation and storage of reserves on ‘Abbé Fétel’ pear trees. Hortscience Vol 54 (12): 2169–2177. (abcef).
37 Elsysy M., Serra S.+, Schwallier P., Musacchi S., and Einhorn T., 2019.  Net Enclosure of ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘Gala’ Apple Trees at Different Bloom Stages Affects Fruit Set and Alters Seed Production. Agronomy. August 2019, DOI: 10.3390/agronomy9090478 (abcdf).
36 Serra S.+, Goke A.+, Diako C., Vixie B., Ross R., and Musacchi S.*, 2019. Consumer perception of d’Anjou pear classified by dry matter at harvest using near-infrared spectroscopy. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2019, 54, 2256-2265 (abcdef).
35 Anthony B. +, Serra S.+, Musacchi S.*, 2019. Optimizing Crop Load for New Apple Cultivar: ‘WA38’. Agronomy MDPI, 9(2), p.107 (abcdef).
34 Serra, S.+, Sullivan, N., Mattheis, J. P., Musacchi, S., Rudell, D. R., 2018. Canopy attachment position influences metabolism and peel constituency of European pear fruit. BMC Plant Biology, 18(1), 364 (abcf).
33 Sheick R.+, Serra S.+, De Franceschi P., Dondini L., Musacchi S.*, 2018. Characterization of a novel self-incompatibility allele in Malus and S-genotyping of select crabapple cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae. 240: 186-195 (abcef).
32 Mupambi G., Musacchi S., Serra S.+, Kalcsits L., Schmidt T., Layne D., 2018. Protective Netting Improves Leaf-level Photosynthetic Light Use Efficiency in ‘Honeycrisp’Apple Under Heat Stress HortScience. HortScience 53(10):1416-1422. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI13096-18 (abcf).
31 Knerl A.+, Anthony B.+, Serra S.+, and Musacchi S.*, 2018. Optimization of Leaf Area Estimation in a ‘Cosmic Crisp’ Apple Orchard Using Hemispherical Photography. HORTSCIENCE 53(6):799–804 (abcef).
30 Mupambi G., Anthony B.+, Layne D., Musacchi S., Serra S.+, and Kalcsits L., 2018. The influence of protective netting on tree physiology and fruit quality of apple: A review. Scientia Horticulturae 236, 60-72 (ef).
29 Goke A.+, Serra S.+ and Musacchi S., 2018. Postharvest Dry Matter and Soluble Solids Content Prediction in d’Anjou and Bartlett Pear Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy. HortScience 53(5): 669-680 (abef).
28 Musacchi S.*, and Serra S.+, 2018. Apple fruit quality: overview on pre-harvest factors. Scientia Horticulturae 234: 409-430 (abcdef). As of July/August 2019, this highly cited paper received enough citations to place it in the top 1% of the academic field of Agricultural Sciences based on a highly cited threshold for the field and publication year. (Number of citations: Web of science 42; Google scholar 65).
27 Rudell D.R., Serra S. +, Sullivan N., Mattheis J.P., and Musacchi S., 2017. Metabolic profiling variations within ‘d’Anjou pear fruit from different canopy positions. Hortscience 52 (11):1501-1510; doi:10.21273/HORTSCI12375-17.
26 Kalcsits L., Mupambi G., Serra S.+, Musacchi S., Layne D., Schmidt T., Mendoza M., Asteggiano L., Sankaran S., Khot L., Jaralmasjed S., and Zuniga C., 2017. Above and below-ground environmental changes associated with the use of photoselective anti-hail netting in apple. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 237-238: 9-17, ISSN: 0168-1923, DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.01.016 (bcf).
25 Mesa, K. +, Serra, S.+, Masia, A., Gagliardi, F.+, Bucci, D.+, and Musacchi, S.*, 2016. Seasonal trends of starch and soluble carbohydrates in fruits and leaves of ‘Abbè Fètel’ pear trees and their relationship to fruit quality parameters. Scientia Horticulturae, 211: 60-69 (abcdef).
24 Serra S.+, Leisso R. L.+, Giordani L., Kalcsits L., and Musacchi S.*, 2016. Crop load influences fruit quality, nutritional balance, and return bloom in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple. HortScience, 51(30): 236-244 (abcdef).
23 Zhang J.+, Serra S.+, Leisso R.S.+, and Musacchi S.*, 2016. Effect of light microclimate on the quality of ‘d’Anjou’pears in mature open-centre tree architecture. Biosystems Engineering, 141: 1-11 (abcdef).
22 Onelli E., Ghiani A., Gentili R., Serra S.+, and Musacchi S., 2015. Specific changes of exocarp and mesocarp occurring during softening differently affect firmness in melting (MF) and non-melting flesh (NMF) fruit. PLoS ONE, 10(12): e0145341. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145341 (bcf).
21 Dondini L., De Franceschi P., Ancarani V.+, Civolani S., Fano E.A., and Musacchi S., 2015. Identification of a QTL for psylla resistance in pear via genome scanning approach. Scientia Horticulturae, 197: 568-572 (abcf).
20 Prinsi B., Musacchi S., Serra S.+, Sacchi G.A., and Espen L., 2015. Early proteomic changes in pear (Pyrus communis L.) calli induced by co-culture on microcallus suspension of incompatible quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.). Scientia Horticulturae, 194: 337-343 (abcdef).
19 Musacchi S.*, Gagliardi F.+ and Serra S.+, 2015. New Training Systems for High-density Planting of Sweet Cherry. HortScience, 50(1): 59-67 (abcdef).
18 Jajo A., Rahim Mda., Serra S.+, Gagliardi F.+, Jajo N.K., Musacchi S., Costa G., Bonghi C. and Trainotti L., 2014. Impact of tree training system, branch type and position in the canopy on the ripening homogeneity of ‘Abbé Fétel’ pear fruit. Tree Genetics & Genomes, 10: 1477-1488. DOI 10.1007/s11295-014-0777-2 (bcef).
17 Civolani S., Grandi G.Chicca M.Pasqualini E.Fano E.A., and Musacchi S., 2013. Probing behavior of Cacopsylla pyri on a resistant pear selection. Journal of Applied Entomology, 137: 365-375 (abcf).
16 Civolani S., Leis M., Grandi G., Garzo E., Pasqualini E., Musacchi S., Chicca M.,  Castaldelli G., Rossi R., Tjallingii W. Freddy, 2011. Stylet penetration of Cacopsylla pyri; an electrical penetration graph (EPG) study. Journal of Insect Physiology, 57 (10): 1407-1419 (f).
15 Szabo T., Labuschagne I., Musacchi S., Nyeki J., Tornyai J., Soltesz J., Szabo M., and Szabo Z., 2010. The Hungarian Pear germplasm as source of genetic variability for breeding programs. International Journal of Horticultural Science, 16(3): 7-13 (df).
14 Pierantoni L.+, Dondini L., De Franceschi P., Musacchi S., Winkel-Shirley B.J., Sansavini S., 2010. Mapping of an anthocyanin-regulating MYB transcription factor and its expression in red and green pear, Pyrus communis. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48: 1020-1026 (abef).
13 Nocito F., Espen L., Fedeli, Lancilli C., Musacchi S., Serra S.+, Sansavini S., Cocucci M., and Sacchi G.A., 2010. Oxidative stress and senescence-like status in pear calli co-cultured on quince microcalli suspensions in an in vitro graft model system. Tree Physiology, 30: 450-458 (abcef).
12 Lugli S., and Musacchi S.*, 2010. Ultra-high-density sweet cherry plantings, Compact Fruit Tree, 43: 15-19 (abcdef).
11 Costa F.+, Peace C. P., Stella S., Serra S.+, Musacchi S., Bazzani M., Sansavini S., and Van de Weg W.E., 2010. QTL dynamics for fruit firmness and softening around and ethylene-dependent polygalacturonase gene in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Journal of Experimental Botany, 130: 1-11 (bcf).
10 Costa F.+, Alba R., Schouten H., Soglio V., Gianfranceschi L., Serra S.+, Musacchi S., Sansavini S., Costa G., Fei Z., and Giovannoni J., 2010. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening. BMC Plant Biol., 10(1):229 (bcf).
9 Musacchi S.*, 2009. Training systems and orchard management for Southern European Pear orchard. Compact Fruit Tree, 42: 16-19 (abcdef).
8 Lakatos L., Musacchi S., Szabó T., Kocsisné M.G., Racskó J., Szabó Z., Soltész M., and Nyéki J., 2009. Relationship between the phenological features of pear cultivars and the main meteorological parameters in a 555 number pear genes bank. International Journal of Horticultural Science, 15: 59-64 (def).
7 Dondini L., Pierantoni L.+, Ancarani V.+, D’Angelo M.+, Cho K.H., Shin I.S., Musacchi S., Kang S.J., and Sansavini S., 2008. The inheritance of the red color character in European pear (Pyrus communis L.) and its map position in the mutated cultivar ‘Max Red Bartlett’”. Plant Breeding, 127: 524-526 (bcf).
6 Costa F.+, Van de Weg W.E., Stella S., Dondini L., Pratesi D., Musacchi S., and Sansavini S., 2008. Map position and functional allelic diversity of Md-Exp7, a new putative expansin gene associated with fruit softening in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) and pear (Pyrus communis). Tree Genetics & Genomes, 4: 575-586 (bcf).
5 Musacchi S., Quartieri M., and Tagliavini M., 2006. Pear (Pyrus communis) but not quince (Cydonia oblonga) roots are able prevent excessive uptake of Cl- and Na+ in saline soils. European Journal of Agronomy, 24: 268-275 (abcdef).
4 Pasqualini E., Civolani S., Musacchi S., Ancarani V., Dondini L., Robert P., and Baronio P., 2006. Cacopsylla pyri behavior on new pear selections for host resistance programs. Bulletin of Insectology, 59: 27-37 (bcef).
3 Musacchi S.*, Pagliuca G., Kindt M., Piretti M.V., and Sansavini S., 2000. Flavonoids as markers for pear-quince graft incompatibility. Journal of Applied Botany – Angewandte Botanik, 74: 206-211 (abcdef).
2 Fachinello J.C.,  Musacchi S.,  Zuccherelli S., and Sansavini S., 2000.  Polimorfismo enzimático nos tecidos de pereira. Isoenzymatic variability in pear tissues for fingerprinting. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 35(7): 1427-1432 (abcf).
1 Fachinello J.C.,  Musacchi S.,  Zuccherelli S., and Sansavini S., 1999. Efeito da interação porta-enxerto copa no padrão isoenzimático de plantas de pereira. Effect of rootstock-scion interaction on pear isozyme patterns. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura (RBF), 21 (3): 288-296 (abcf).

Book Chapters

9 Musacchi S., 2022. Pero. In Arboricoltura Speciale. Editors Alessandra Gentile, Paolo Inglese and Massimo Tagliavini. Edagricole – New Business Media srl. Milan. Printed by Casma Tipolito Bologna. ISBN 978-88-506-5616-5. pp 281-312.
8 Musacchi S. and Neri, D.,2019. Optimizing production of quality nursery plants for fruit tree cultivation. Achieving sustainable cultivation of temperate zone tree fruits and berries. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing.
7 Musacchi S.* and Green D., 2017. Innovations in apple tree cultivation to manage crop load and ripening. In: Achieving sustainable cultivation of apples. Editor Kate Evans, Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited. Published June 22 2017.   ISBN-13: 9781786760326. ID: 9781786760326-008. pp. 195-237 (cdef).
6 Musacchi S.*, Ancarani V. +, and Sansavini S., 2015. Pero. In: 50 years of breeding at Alma Mater Studiorum 100 new fruit and grape cultivars (50 anni di miglioramento genetico all’Alma Mater Studiorum 100 nuove varieta’ di piante da frutto e vite). Editors Silviero Sansavini and Stefano Lugli, Patron Editore Bologna, p. 115-120 (cdef).
5 Musacchi S.*, 2007. Orchard Management (Tecnica colturale). In: Il pero. Art servizi editoriali s.p.a Bologna, p. 92-137 (Coltura e Cultura) (acdef).
4 Musacchi S.*, Rombolà A.D., Tagliavini M. and Sansavini S., 2000. Management of high-density planting orchard of pear: innovative technique, economic evaluation and new cultivar (Gestione degli impianti di pero ad alta densità: messa a punto tecnologica colturale, valutazione economica, trasferibilità varietali). Lo Scarabeo Editrice. Monografia progetto Leader II, p. 1-63 (abcdef).
3 Sansavini S. and Musacchi S., 1998.  Tree architecture and pruning in modern pear orchards (Modelli di impianto, architettura e potatura nei moderni pereti). In: Frutticoltura ad alta densità. Impianti, forme di allevamento e tecniche di potatura. Edagricole Edizioni Agricole, p. 129-154 (cdef).
2 Musacchi S.*, 1996. Studies on physiological and biochemical aspect of graft-incompatibility: secondary metabolites (phenols, Cyanogenic glycoside and proteins (La disaffinità d’innesto del pero su cotogno: ricerche su marcatori e metaboliti secondari (fenoli, glicosidi cianogeni, e proteine). PhD Thesis. (VIII ciclo. Department of Colture Arboree, Università degli Studi di Bologna (abcdef).
1 Musacchi S.* 1994.  Aspects of graft-incompatibility (Aspetti  biochimici  della  disaffinita’ d’innesto). Quaderno n. 1  Seminari Dottorato di Ricerca “Colture Arboree” 1985-1995. Editor S. Sansavini, p. 209-215 (acdef).


35 Serra S.,  Goke A., Sheick R., Mendoza M., Schmidt T., Hanrahan I., Ross C. and Musacchi S., 2023. Effects of harvest timing on maturity, fruit quality, and consumer acceptance of ‘WA 38’ apples.

Acta Hortic. 1366: 61-68. DOI: 0.17660/ActaHortic.2023.1366.7

34 Robinson T.L., L. Gonzalez, L. Cheng, Y. Ziang, G. Peck, B. Arnoldussen, M. Gomez, M. Guerra, Mario Miranda Sazo, C. Kahlke, T. Einhorn, A. Wallis, S. Musacchi, S. Serra, K. Lewis, T. Schmidt, P. Heinemann, L. He, T. Kon, S. Sherif, J. Clements and C. Layer, 2023. Studies in precision crop load management of apple. Acta Hortic. 1366: 219-225. DOI 10.17660/ActaHortic.2023.1366.25
33 Serra, S., Sheick, R., Roeder, S. and Musacchi, S.* (2022). “WA 38” abscission and fruit development in an open pollination scenario. Acta Hortic. 1346, 129-138. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2022.1346.17.
32 Musacchi, S.* (2021). Physiological basis of pear pruning and light effects on fruit quality. Acta Hortic. 1303, 151-162 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1303.23
31 Kalcsits, L., Asteggiano, L., Schmidt, T., Musacchi, S., Serra, S., Layne, D., Mupambi, G. (2018). Shade netting reduces sunburn damage and soil moisture depletion in ‘Granny Smith’ apples. Acta Hortic. 1228: 85-90.
30 Vidoni S., Fiori G., Rocchi L., Spinelli F., Musacchi S., and Costa G., 2015. DAFL: new innovative device to monitor fruit ripening in storage Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 1094: 549-554 (f).
29 Musacchi S.*, Serra S.+, Noferini M., Gagliardi F.+, Bucci D.+, Pagliuca G., and Zironi E., 2015. Study of the relation between peach ripening and phenolic compounds. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 1084: 625-632 (abcdf).
28 Jajo A., Corso M., Bonghi C., dal Molin A., Avanzato C., Ferrarini A., Delledonne M., Rahim Md.A., Trainotti L., Serra S.+, and Musacchi S., 2015. Effect of cool storage duration on ripening initiation of ‘Angelys®’ pear fruit. Acta Hortic. (ISHS) 1079: 129-136 (acf).
27 Musacchi S.*, Serra S.+, Ancarani V.+, Wiedmer R.+, and Martinelli A., 2014. Effects of cold storage length on physiological parameters of cultivar “Clery” and “Elsanta”. Acta Hortic. (ISHS) 1049: 989-994 (abcdef).
26 Musacchi S.*, Serra S. +, Ancarani, V. +, Wiedmer R. +, and Martinelli A., 2014. Characterization of runners production in different cultivars of strawberry in nursery. Acta Hortic. (ISHS) 1049: 995-1001 (abcdef).
25 Musacchi S.*, Bucci D.+, Ancarani V.+, Gagliardi F.+, and Serra S.+, 2014. Investigation of ‘Modì®’ habitus in relation to training systems. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 1058: 121-128 (abcef).
24 Musacchi S.*, Abeti C.+, Ancarani V.+, Bucci D.+, Gagliardi F.+, and Serra S.+, 2014. Summer pruning of apricot Cvs. ‘Bora®’ and ‘Carmen Top®’. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 1058: 85-94 (abcef).
23 Gagliardi F. +, Serra S.+, Ancarani V.+, Bucci D.+, Piccinini L., Noferini M., Musacchi S.*, and Costa G., 2014. Preliminary results on Cv. ‘Abbé Fétel’ productivity and fruit quality in relation to tree architecture. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 1058: 151-158 (abcef).
22 Musacchi S.* and Lugli S., 2014. High-density planting for sweet cherry orchards. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 1020: 489-495 (abcdef).
21 Musacchi S.*, Serra S.+, and Ancarani V.+, 2011. Comparison among pear training systems and rootstocks for high-density planting (HDP) of the cultivar ‘Abbé Fétel’. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 909: 251-258 (abcef).
20 Musacchi S.*, 2011. Training system and management for a high-density orchard of ‘Abbé Fetel’. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 909: 225-240 (abcdef).
19 Labuschagne I.,  Musacchi S., Nyéki J., Szabó Z., and Szabó T., 2011. The Hungarian pear germplasm (Pyrus communis) as source of genetic variability for breeding programs. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 909: 89-96 (f).
18 Galli F., Ancarani V., Serra S.+, and Musacchi S.*, 2011. Training systems and rootstocks for high-density planting (HDP) of the cultivar ‘Abbé Fétel’: developmental trials in Italy. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 909: 277-280 (abcef).
17 Dorigoni A., Lezzer P. +, Dallabetta N., Serra S.+, and Musacchi S.*, 2011. Bi-axis: an alternative to slender spindle for apple orchards. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 903: 581-588 (abcdef).
16 Pierantoni L.+, Dondini L., Musacchi S., Wilkel B.S., and Sansavini S., 2009. Gene expression patterns of red color skin in Bartlett pear (Pyrus communis) and its bud mutation Max Red Bartlett. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 814: 567-570 (af).
15 Musacchi S.*, 2008. Bibaum®: a new training system for pear orchard. Acta Hortic. 800: 763-768 (abcdef).
14 Musacchi S.*, 2008. Training systems and soil management for Southern European pear orchards. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 772: 447-457 (abcdef).
13 Costa F. +, Stella S., Soglio V., Gianfranceschi L., Schouten H., Van de Weg W.E., Guerra W., Serra S. +, Musacchi S., and Sansavini S., 2007. Comprehensive analysis of candidate genes involved in ethylene production and perception during apple ripening: phenotypic dissection and functional profiling. In: Advances in Plant Ethylene Research, Dordrecht, Springer, 2007, pp. 423-429. Editors Angelo Ramina, C. Chang, J. Giovannoni, H. Klee, Perata P., Woltering E., (Acta: 7th International Symposium on the Plant Hormone Ethylene, PISA, 2006) (f).
12 Musacchi S.*, Ancarani V.+, Gamberini A.+, Gaddoni M.+, Grandi M., and Sansavini S., 2005. Response of training system planting density and cultivar in pear. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 671: 463-469 (abcdef).
11 Musacchi S.*, Ancarani V.+, Gamberini A.+, Giatti B.+, and Sansavini S., 2005. Progress in pear breeding at the University of Bologna. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 671: 191-194 (cdef).
10 Musacchi S.*, Ganino T., Grassi S., and Fabbri A., 2004. Grafting “in vitro” Shoots on acclimating plants: morphological and anatomical aspects of compatible and incompatible pear/quince combinations. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 658: 559-563 (abcef).
9 Sansavini S., Musacchi S.*, Ferrazzano G., and Ancarani V., 2002. Hybridization of European and nashi pears: selecting for novel taste traits. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 596: 255-259 (acdef).
8 Sansavini S. and Musacchi S. 2002. European pear orchard design and HDP management: a Review. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 596: 589-601 (ef).
7 Pirovano L., Sacchi G.A., Abruzzese A., Musacchi S., Bernardi G.+, Sansavini S., and Cocucci M., 2002. Study of genes expression in (in) compatible pear/pear and pear/quince grafts by mRNA differential display. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 596: 393-396 (abf).
6 Musacchi S.*, Quartieri M., Ciambellini M.+, Masia A., Corelli Grappadelli L., and Tagliavini M., 2002. Effects of rootstock on the physiological response of pear (cv. Abbé Fétel) trees to increasing levels of salinity of the irrigation water. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 596: 683-686 (abcef).
5 Musacchi S.*, Masia A., and Fachinello J.C., 2002. Variation of enzymatic activity in relationship to scion/stock compatibility in pear/quince combination. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 596: 389-391 (abcef).
4 Musacchi S.*, Ancarani V.+, Grandi M., and Sansavini S., 2002. Comparative field performance of cvs. “Sensation Red Bartlett” and “Cascade” grafted to six quince and pear clonal seedling rootstocks. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 596: 385-399 (abcde).
3  Corelli Grappadelli L., Musacchi S., and Magnanini, 2000. Single leaf and whole canopy gas exchanges of pear as affected by graft-incompatibility. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 557: 377-383 (abcde).
2 Musacchi S.*, Faust M., Hartung J., and Sansavini S., 1997. A new “in vitro” methodology for studying cell-cell recognition in pear-quince graft incompatibility. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 451(2): 731-740 (abcde).
1 Sansavini S. and Musacchi S. 1993. Canopy architecture, training, and pruning in the modern orchard. Acta Hortic. (ISHS), 367: 152-172 (cde).

Extension articles

3 Alexander T., Scheenstra E., King J., Musacchi S., Miles C., 2019. Establishing a cider apple orchard for mechanized management in Washington State Apple Production. Peer-Reviewed. EM117E. pp1-24
2 Mupambi G., Layne D., Kalcsits L., Musacchi S., Serra S., Schmidt T., 2019. Use of Protective Netting in Washington State Apple Production. Peer-Reviewed.TB60E pp 1-20.
1 Long L., Lang G., Musacchi S., and Whiting M., 2015. Cherry Training systems. Pacific North West Publication, 667: 1-63 (cdef).

Videos, online

(Total views 254,685 August 7, 2023)

2021 Apple Production – ISHS Orchard Systems Symposium. (YouTube direct link).

Stefano Musacchi, Washington State Apple Production. November 24, 2021 (5,255 views)

2021 Pear Production – ISHS Orchard Systems Symposium. (YouTube direct link).

Stefano Musacchi, Washington State Pear Production. November 24, 2021 (1,592 views)

2021 Cherry Production – ISHS Orchard Systems Symposium. (YouTube direct link).

Stefano Musacchi, Washington State Cherry Production. November 24, 2021 (3,895 views)

2021 Stefano Musacchi. Winter prune fifth leaf WA 38 (Cosmic Crisp). Good Fruit Growers February 17, 2021 (36,134 views)
2021 Stefano Musacchi, Winter prune fourth leaf WA 38 (Cosmic Crisp). Good Fruit Growers. February 17, 2021 (8,416 views)
2020 Quince comparisons – Several dwarfing rootstocks for pears show promise in trial, but more study still needed. (YouTube direct link). August 28, 2020 (1,284 views)
2019 WA 38 Horticulture Update 2019. January 23, 2019 (615 views)
2019 Aprende poda de clic con Stefano Musacchi

Jan 11, 2019 (1,507 views).

2019 Musacchi Internationa Cherry Symposium Vignola 8 giu 12

November 20, 2019 (195 views).

2018 Stefano Musacchi: Light interception key to quality apple production.

June 18, 2018 (1,984 views).

2018 Learn how to prune Cosmic Crisp with Stefano Musacchi. March 26, 2018 (8,870 views).
2018 Tree training tips for Cosmic Crisp. September 27, 2018 6,169 views).
2017 WA 38 ‘Cosmic CrispTM’ Fall Field Visits – Part 2. Published on April 13, 2017. Field day, September 14 and 22, 2016 (8,536 views).
2017 Pushing the modern orchard into the future: IFTA 2017. Published on February 22, 2017. (1,999 views).
2017 How to use the Click Pruning Method with Stefano Musacchi – Hort Show 2016. Published on January 23, 2017 (12,251 views).
2015 Pruning Bartlett Pear to Optimize Fruit Quality. Published on February 17, 2015

Speaker: Dr. Stefano Musacchi, Associate Professor & Endowed Chair, Tree Fruit Physiology and Management, Washington State University

Affiliation: WSU Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, Wenatchee, WA 98801-1230 (135,041 views).

2015 Mechanical Pruning: Maslin Cripps Pink — FGNtv. Published on August 19, 2015

Stefano Musacchi, Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, Washington State University, talks about a mechanical pruning trial on Maslin Cripp Pink apples under the cloth. During a stop at McDougall and Sons’ Whispering Rocks Orchard in Mattawa, Washington, he spoke during the International Fruit Tree Association’s 2015 Regional Summer in Washington State (1,366 views).

2014 New pear cultivars 2014. Interpoma 2014 – Intervista a Stefano Musacchi, Università di Bologna. Published on Nov. 21, 2014 Interpoma, fiera internazionale dedicata alla mela. Fiera Bolzano, 20-22 Novembre 2014. (334 views).
2014 Cosmic CrispTM WA 38 Field Days – September 17 and 30, 2014. Published on October 31, 2014. This video was recorded at two commercial grower field days on September 17 and 30, 2014. It provides the viewer with a look at the Cosmic CrispTM WA 38 apple both at Washington State University research trial sites (WSU-IAREC, Roza Research Farm, Prosser, WA and WSU-TFREC, Sunrise Research Farm, Rock Island, WA) and commercial grower trial sites (Allan Brothers, Inc., Prosser, WA and Stemilt Growers LLC, Quincy, WA). Various aspects of the trial research and cultivar attributes are discussed by Dr. Kate Evans (WSU Apple Breeder), Dr. Stefano Musacchi (17,040 views).
2013 Stefano Musacchi’s first talk at WSU. Published on September 11, 2013 (1,453 views).
2013 I primi risultati del progetto Ager Innovapero (First results of the project AGER Innovapero). Published on July 10, 2013. AGRESTE PUNTATA 16 DEL 10 LUGLIO 2013. Interview to Stefano Musacchi, University of Bologna, coordinator and responsible of the project Ager INNOVAPERO (495 views).
2011 Il progetto AGER Innovapero: obiettivi e linee di ricerca (The project AGER Innovapero: objectives and research tasks). Uploaded on December 11, 2011

Stefano Musacchi, Coordinator and responsible for the project AGER Innovapero. Interview registered October 7, 2011, Macfrut di Cesena (254 views).

2011 Il progetto AGER Innovapero: obiettivi e linee di ricerca (The project AGER Innovapero: objective and research task). CANALE TEMATICO AGER INNOVAPERO.

Varieties released

Keys:  a) Made the cross; b) Obtained or provided funds or other resources;   c) Collected data; d) Analyzed data; e) Wrote product patent or description

2016 Musacchi S.*, Ancarani V., and Sansavini S. PE1UNIBO*. 2016. Patent number USPP27, 029 P3 August 9, 2016. Lucy SweetTM (Pear cultivar) (abcde).
2016 Musacchi S.*, Ancarani V., and Sansavini S. PE2UNIBO*. 2016. Patent number USPP27, 028 P3 August 9, 2016. Early GiuliaTM (Pear cultivar) (abcde).
2016 Musacchi S.*, Ancarani V., and Sansavini S. PE3UNIBO*. 2016. Patent number USPP26, 989 P3 August 2, 2016. Debby GreenTM (Pear cultivar) (abcde).
2016 Musacchi S.*, Ancarani V., and Sansavini S. PE4UNIBO*. 2016. Patent number USPP27, 027 P3 August 9, 2016. Lucy RedTM (Pear cultivar) (abcde).


Professional to the discipline


2021-2025 Chair of ISHS Working Group Rootstock Breeding and Evaluation. International Society for Horticultural Science, Leuven, Belgium (2021-2025).
2018-2027 Chair of ISHS Working Group European and Asian Pears. International Society for Horticultural Science, Leuven, Belgium. (2018-2027).
2016-2022 Convener of the XII International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. Wenatchee (Washington State) USA July 26-31, 2021.


2017-2018 Chair WG Pomology. American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS).

Editorial Appointments & Peer Reviewing Activities

2020-2022 Editor of the Acta Horticulture volume 1346. Proceeding of the XII International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems.
2018-Present Editorial Board. Agronomy. Open Access Journal (ISSN 2073-4395; CODEN: ABSGGL) is an international, scientific, peer-reviewed, open-access journal published monthly online by MDPI.
2018-Present Editorial Board. Italus Hortus (IH)-Società di Ortoflorofrutticoltura Italiana ISSN (1127-3496), Firenze, Italy. (January 1, 2018 – December 31, 2018).
2015-Present Advisory Board. eJHS (European Journal of Horticultural Science). This Journal has become an integral part of the International Society for Horticultural Science publication portfolio on January 1, 2015 (ISSN: 1611-4426 print and 1611-4434 online).